19. April 2017

Vorträge und Veröffentlichungen

Nachfolgend finden Sie einige ausgewählte aktuelle Forschungsprojekte:


Research Project „Culture Based Leadership Styles“

  1. Research Design and Findings

A major premise of this project is that any kind of ‘etic’ approach towards global leadership only partially explains contemporary leadership in China. Rather an ‘emic’ perspective has to be complemented. Our study deals with the leadership behaviour of Chinese managers. Unfamiliar with the Chinese culture and their ways of doing business foreign managers will encounter differences. The objectives are to examine the fundamentals of Chinese culture with respect to leadership, identify the most popular leadership mechanisms and outline basic business implications. A questionnaire was designed for testing which leadership styles can be identified in China.

On the basis of a questionnaire measuring Chinese leadership styles, we tested the possible differences between German employees working in Chinese companies in Germany according to their perception of the leadership styles used by either Chinese or German managers. The results revealed that the leadership styles of the Chinese managers in Germany is perceived as problematic and could be improved. Genuine Chinese leadership styles show many advantages in general, but seem to be highly dysfunctional in Germany. A possible future direction will be discussed to improve the understanding of Chinese leadership styles in a Non-Chinese environment.

  1. Publications

Busch, R., Unger, A., May, C., McMahon, R. & Wang, Y. 2013. Cultural Based Chinese Leadership Styles in a Globalised Market. International Journal of Chinese Culture and Management, 3(3), 303–322.

Busch, R., & Wang, Y. 2013. A Comparison of Leadership Styles between Chinese and German Managers of Chinese Companies in Germany A Comparison of Leadership Styles between Chinese and German Managers of Chinese Companies in Germany. Web Journal of Chinese Management Review, 16(2), 1–17.

Research Project „Business Ethics in China“

  1. Research Design and Findings

In a sample of 316 Chinese MBA students, the influence of Time Perspective on two types of unethical behaviors was tested. We differentiated between rule-based and social-concern issues. Time Perspective was measured by using a Chinese version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Participants’ evaluation of the issues as ethical—or unethical—and their behavioral intention to violate business ethics were measured. For evaluation of rule-based issues, Past-Positive, Present-Hedonistic and Future significantly influenced in the predicted direction, whereas no significant effects of time perspectives for social concern issues were observed. According to behavioral intention, only Present-Fatalistic reached significance for both types of ethical issues in the predicted direction. Further, it was shown in a mediation-model that the influence of DBTP on behavioral intention to show unethical practices is mediated by the evaluation as ethical/unethical in the case of rule-based issues (in the case of social concern, the factors reached no significance or only nearby significances, respectively). Chinese managers with a high deviation from a balanced time perspective showed reduced evaluation of unethical practices as unethical, and an enhanced behavioral intention to show unethical practices. Other potential variables of influence, such as age, gender, the size of company, and the degree of globalization were considered, and their influences were controlled.

  1. Publications

Busch, R.; Unger, A; May, C.; McMahon, R.; Wang, Y.C: Characteristics of Ethical Decision Making in China – Which are the Genuine Facets of Business Ethics in Chinese Culture, in: Rövekamp, F.; Bosse, F. (Eds). 2013. Ethics in Science and Society: German and Japanese View. Judicium. München. pp. 145-161.

Unger, A., Yan, J. & Busch, R. 2016. The Relationship Between the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and Violations of Business Ethics in China: Unbalanced Time Perspective Increases the Acceptance of Unethical Business behavior. Time & Society, (2) 1–24.


Research Project “Network Capabilities Across Cultures”

  1. Research Design and Findings

The purpose of this study is to identify key factors related to network capabilities that enhance the performance of Chinese, Turkish and German firms. Chinese (n = 107), Turkish (n = 129) and German (n = 109) MBA-students completed a questionnaire, based on an earlier version developed by Kenny [2009], which included questions on the respective firm, its performance and network capabilities.  The predictors of  firm performance varied by country: in China “information sharing” and “trust” were important, in Turkey “network coordination” and in Germany “human capital resources.” In addition, each country had its own specifc drivers of  firm performance. The  findings of this paper should enhance understanding of the cross-cultural differences and assist managers when planning to join foreign corporations.

  1. Publications

Papastamatelou, J., Busch, R., Ötken, B., Okan, E. Y., & Gassemi, K. 2016. Effects of Network Capabilities on Firm Performance across Cultures. International Journal of Management and Economics, 49(1), 79–105.



Monographien und Veröffentlichungen in Zeitschriften und Sammelwerken

Busch, R., Fuchs, W., Unger, F. (2008)
Integriertes Marketing (4. Aufl.). Wiesbaden.

Mudra, P, Rupp, M. & Unger, A. (2005)
Führungsposition aufgegeben – eine Studie der Fachhochschule Ludwigshafen. Zeitschrift für Human Ressource Management, 57, pp. 54 – 56.

Mudra, P, Rupp, M. & Unger, A. (2005)
Stand und Entwicklung der betrieblichen Weiterbildung.
Weiterbildung, 3, pp. 24-27.

Unger, F. (2005) Kritik des Konstruktivismus (2. Aufl.). Heidelberg

Busch, R., Seidenspinner, M. & Unger, F. (2006)
Communication-Policy. Heidelberg

Unger, A. (2007) Neue Ansätze in der Organisation.
In: Kremin-Buch, B; Unger, F. & Walz, H. (Hrsg.). Lernende Organisation – Managementschriften der Fachhochschule Ludwigshafen am    Rhein – Hochschule der Wirtschaft.

Unger, A. (2007)
Der Einfluss von Ego-Depletion auf das Risikoverhalten [The influence of ego-depletion on risk behavior].
Aachen, Shaker.

Raab, G., Unger, A. & Unger, F. (2008)
Methoden der Marketing-Forschung (2. Aufl), Wiesbaden (Gabler).

Unger, A. & Stahlberg, D. (2008)
The influence of ego depletion on decision making. Forschungsbericht des SFB 504 Rationalitätskonzepte,
Entscheidungsverhalten und ökonomische Modellierung, Universität Mannheim, 2008.

Unger, A. Stahlberg, D. (2008)
Self-regualtory strength and ego depletion. A decade later: Influence of ego-depletion on risk beahvior.
International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 43, S. 13.

Unger, A. Roth, M., & Bertrams, A. (2009)
Ego-Depletion und Arbeitszufriedenheit – eine korrelative Studie über mögliche Zusammenhänge.
Tagungsband der 15. Fachtagung der Gesellschaft für angewandte Wirtschaftspsychologie, Ludwigshafen am Rhein , 10. und 11. Juli 2009, S. 468 – 483.

Eberle, H-M & Unger, A. (2009)
Persönliche, schriftliche und elektronische Kommunikation in Organisationen im Vergleich.
In: Raab, G. & Unger, A. (Hrsg.). Tagungsband der 15. Fachtagung der Gesellschaft für angewandte Wirtschaftspsychologie (GWPs), Ludwigshafen am Rhein , 10. und 11. Juli 2009, S 377 – 396

Raab, G. & Unger, A. (2009)
Tagungsband der 15. Fachtagung der Gesellschaft für angewandte Wirtschaftspsychologie GWPs,
Ludwigshafen am Rhein, 10. und 11. Juli 2009; Herausgeber, Pabst Verlag, 2009.

Busch, R., Unger, A. & Unger, F. (2010)
Internationales Marketing. In. Unger,
F. (Hrsg.). Kompendium der Betriebswirtschaftslehre, Band I, (7. Aufl.) S. 405-461.

Raab, G., Reisch, L.A. & Unger, A. (2010)
Unkontrolliertes und süchtiges Kaufverhalten in Deutschland: Wen interessiert die Wirtschaftskrise?
In Jürgen Smettan (Hrsg.). Beiträge zur Wirtschaftspsychologie 2010. S. 64 – 72

Kollmann, K. & Unger, A. (2010)
Kaufsucht in Österreich – Bericht zur siebten Kaufsuchtgefährdungsstudie 2010 [Compulsive buying in Austria – Report of the fifth survey about endangerment by compulsive buying 2010].
Materialien Konsumentenpolitik, 1, 2010. Wien: Chamber of Workers and Employees of Vienna, Department of Consumer Policy

Raab, G., Unger, A. & Unger, F. (2010)
Marktpsychologie – Lehrbuch (3. Aufl.). Wiesbaden (Gabler) 2010

Unger, A. (2010)
Ego Depletion – Verlust an Kontrolle,
in Raab, G. & Unger, F. Marktpsychologie (3. Aufl.), Wiesbaden (Gabler), S. 311 – 331.

Raab, G., Goddard, J., Ajami, R. A. & Unger, A. (2010).
The Psychology of Marketing: Cross-cultural perspectives.
Gower Publications.

Unger, F. (Hrsg):
Kompendium der Betriebswirtschaftslehre, Band I und Band II (7. Aufl.). Mannheim: 2010

Unger, A. & Stahlberg, D. (2011)
Ego Depletion and Risk Behavior: Too Exhausted to Take a Risk:
Social Psychology (Sonderband, Hrsg. von Frank Wieber; Peter M. Gollwitzer & Gottfried Seebaß); S. 28 – 38.

Bertrams, A.; Unger, A. & Dickhäuser, O.: (2011)
Momentan verfügbare Selbstkontrollkraft – Vorstellung eines Messinstruments und erste Befunde aus pädagogisch-psychologischen Kontexten,
Zeitschrift für pädagogische Psychologie, 2011, Vol. 25, Nr. 3, S. 185 – 196

Unger, Alexander; Busch, Rainer; Wang, Yacheng & May, Christian (2011)
Leadership Styles in China – Development of a Questionnaire for measuring Chinese Leadership Styles.
Proceedings of the Conference of Psychology and Social Harmony (CPSH), 8-10. April in Wuhan, China. Irvine, CA: Scientific Research Publishing USA. S. 60 – 63.

Unger, Alexander; Buss, Eva & Stahlberg, Dagmar (2011)
Short-term work: Gender differences in ego-depletion following feelings of incertitude and pessimistic appraisal of the future.
Proceedings of the Conference of Psychology and Social Harmony (CPSH), 8-10. April in Wuhan, China. Irvine, CA: Scientific Research Publishing USA, S. 148 – 151.

Unger, Alexander; Schulze, David & Stahlberg, Dagmar (2011)
The Influence of Ego-Depletion on the Effectiveness of Persuasive Messages.
Proceedings of the Conference of Psychology and Social Harmony (CPSH), 8-10. April in Wuhan, China. Irvine, CA: Scientific Research Publishing USA, S. 204 – 206.

Busch, R.; Unger, A.; May, C; McMahon, R. & Wang, J.C. (2011)
Characteristics of Ethical Decision Making in China – Which are the Genuine Facets of Business Ethics in Chinese Culture?
Tagungsband der Vereinigung für sozialwissenschaftliche Japanforschung (VSJF) 2011 zum Thema „Ethics“, 27.11.2011 in Ludwigshafen.

Busch, R.; Wang, Y. C.; Unger, A. ; May, C. & McMahon, R. (2012)
Chinese Companies in Germany: Which leadership styles were perceived – A comparison between Chinese and German Managers.
Web Journal of Chinese Marketing Review, 2012

Bi, C., Xiao, Y., Li, X., Di, X., Cai, Z. & Unger, A. (2012)
Is Androgyny Better than Masculinity?: The Influence of Gender Roles on College Students’ Self-worth.
Journal of Southwest China Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 34.

Busch, R.; Unger, A.; McMahon, R.; Wang, Y. C. & May, C. (2013)
Culture-based leadership styles in China – results of an empirical study.
In International Journal of Chinese Culture and Management (in press)

Unger, A., Raab, G. (2014)
The dark side of globalization and consumption: How similar are Chinese and German consumers toward their proneness to compulsive buying? Journal of Asia Pacific Business (submitted for publication)

Unger, A., Papastamatelou, J., Arpagaus, J.
The role of network-based social capital for donation behaviour: The nexus of belonging, well-being and charity in Switzerland,
Swiss Journal of Sociology (submitted for publication)

Raab, G., Reisch, L.A., Unger, A., Gwozdz, W & Kollmann, K. (2012)
Compensatory and addictive buying behavior: A representative study in Germany, Austria and Denmark. Journal of Economic Psychology. (in preparation).

Fuchs, W.; Michel & Unger, F. (2012)
Mediaplanung (6. Aufl.). Heidelberg: 2012

Fuchs, W. & Unger, F. (2013)
Marketing-Kommunikation (4. Aufl.). Heidelberg: 2013